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For Winters, Jorgensen's story simply confirmed the false belief that all men attracted to other men must be basically feminine," which, he said, "they are not." [Google Scholar], p. 31. Astronomy and astrology have been heavily linked throughout history, and some astronomical fears are based on religious or doomsday phobias. [101][102][103][104], In 1950s America, there was a debate among gay men and women about those who felt they were of the opposite sex. Clearly hoplophobia is a complex phobia that falls into the DSM's blood, injections and injuries category of specific phobias. A)Fear more dramatically interferes with a person's life. For some people, education and exposure to the object of fear are sufficient to calm their concerns. Sweden and the United Kingdom has also legislated against employment discrimination on the grounds of gender identity. [113][114], However, some bisexual individuals and scholars object to the notion that bisexuality means sexual attraction to only two genders, arguing that since bisexual is not simply about attraction to two sexes and encompasses gender as well, it can include attraction to more than one[115] or more than two genders[116] and is occasionally defined as such. [9], Transfeminist theorist and author Julia Serano argues in her book Whipping Girl that transphobia is rooted in sexism, and locates the origins of both transphobia and homophobia in what she calls "oppositional sexism", the belief that male and female are "rigid, mutually exclusive categories, each possessing a unique and nonoverlapping set of attributes, aptitudes, abilities, and desires". . In North America, organizations associated with the Christian right, including the American Family Association, Family Research Council, Focus on the Family, National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, believe that "transgenderism" is unnatural and that transgender people are and remain their birth sex. Think of domestic violence and so-called road rage as key examples of this. [31] In the article Stotzer noted that transgender people have a high risk of experiencing sexual violence throughout their lifetimes. The American Institute of Bisexuality argues that these terms "describe a person with homosexual and heterosexual attractions, and therefore people with these labels are also bisexual"[117] and that the notion that bisexuality is a reinforcement of a gender binary is a concept that is founded upon "anti-science, anti-Enlightenment philosophy that has ironically found a home within many Queer Studies departments at universities across the Anglophone world". Badboy Books, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting), Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms, movement for the rights of gender and sexual minorities, San Francisco Department of Public Health, Transgender disenfranchisement in the United States, National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, Muslim Alliance for Sexual and Gender Diversity, Discrimination against non-binary gender people, List of people killed for being transgender, "Tackling Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity". In some cases, this fear may center on a very particular type of social situation such as public speaking. Phobias could be of heights, bridges, talkiing to a group, or any number of other things. At the same time, our personal experiences of violence (if we have any) can combine with the pernicious effects of media coverage to build up a quite irrational fear in us – a sense that aggression is waiting for us round every corner. Some are refused healthcare or suffer workplace discrimination, including being fired for being transgender, or feel under siege by conservative political or religious groups who oppose laws to protect them. Van Gelder, Lindsy; and Pamela Robin Brandt. [119], 62% of lawsuits involving transgender people state that defendants face family problems. Demagogues of defamation Gay: Where is the outrage when cable TV's talking heads trash trans people? Trans-gendered: Theology, ministry, and communities of faith, Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press. The fear of the Northern Lights, or auroraphobia, is an unusual but very real phobia. 9% reported being denied the right to use a public restroom consistent with their gender. Specific phobia disorder. Transgender related bias, or discrimination, victimization, and rejection effects transgender adults and the severity of PTSD symptoms they report. Technically, a phobia is an extreme, irrational, overwhelming and disabling fear of an activity, situation, place, item or object (i.e., a living thing or inanimate object). [54], Employment discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression is illegal in the United States. The term ‘phobia’ is often used to refer to a fear of one particular trigger. Where can I get help if I’m dealing with transphobia? [71] In the book Raymond says, "All transsexuals rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves .... Transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive. [2], In the hiring process, discrimination may be either open or covert, with employers finding other ostensible reasons not to hire a candidate or just not informing prospective employees at all as to why they are not being hired. "[4] Attacking someone on the basis of a perception of their gender identity rather than a perception of their sexual orientation is known as "trans bashing", analogous to "gay bashing". Transgender disenfranchisement is the practice of creating or upholding barriers that keep transgender individuals from voting and therefore restrict the principles of universal suffrage. Morning Star. [30], In 2009, researcher Rebecca L. Stotzer published an article in Aggression and Violent Behavior that compiled information from numerous studies reporting violence against transgender people. Most of the administrators and educators are unaware about the extent of damage that has been caused to the transgender students on account of underestimating the gravity of transphobia in their schools. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. A high percentage report being victims of sexual violence. These include "So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them" (Genesis 1:27) and "The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment: for all that do so are an abomination unto the Lord thy God" (Deuteronomy 22:5). Violence, such as that shown in The Shining, ... Like all phobias, winter phobias vary dramatically in their severity and the impact that they have on individual sufferers' lives. The Western world, there have been found between MSA experienced by transgender veterans may experience about and. 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